1 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2023 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2023,

2, “Fourth Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” February 2023,, pg. 24. 

3 Rand Corporation, “Prices Paid to Hospitals by Private Health Plans: Findings from Round 4 of an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative,” Supplemental Material, Table 3. States, July 2022,

4 Urban Institute, “Debt in America: An Interactive Map,” June 2022,

5 National Public Radio, “Investigation: Many U.S. hospitals sue patients for debts or threaten their credit,” December 2022,

6 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” October 2021,  

All data as of July 2023.