1 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2023 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2023, https://lownhospitalsindex.org/2023-fair-share-spending/.

2 PatientRightsAdvocate.org, “Fourth Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” February 2023, https://www.patientrightsadvocate.org/february-semi-annual-compliance-report-2023, pg. 24. 

3 Rand Corporation, “Prices Paid to Hospitals by Private Health Plans: Findings from Round 4 of an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative,” Supplemental Material, Table 3. States, July 2022, https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA1144-1.html.

4 Urban Institute, “Debt in America: An Interactive Map,” June 2022, https://apps.urban.org/features/debt-interactive-map/?type=medical&variable=medcoll&state=55.

5 National Public Radio, “Investigation: Many U.S. hospitals sue patients for debts or threaten their credit,” December 2022, https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2022/12/21/1144491711/investigation-many-u-s-hospitals-sue-patients-for-debts-or-threaten-their-credit.

6 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” October 2021, https://www.medicaldebtpolicyscorecard.org/state/WI.  

All data as of July 2023.