1 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2023 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2023,

2, “Fifth Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” July 2023,, pg. 26. 

3 Urban Institute, “Debt in America: An Interactive Map,” October 2023,

4 National Public Radio, “Investigation: Many U.S. hospitals sue patients for debts or threaten their credit,” December 2022,

5 CNN, “Arkansas hospital sued thousands of patients over medical bills during the pandemic, including hundreds of its own employees,” September 2023,

6 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” October 2021,  

7 Leapfrog Hospital Safety Grade, State Rankings, November 2023,

All data as of December 2023.