California

1 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2023 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2023, https://lownhospitalsindex.org/2023-fair-share-spending/

2  Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2022 Results Fair Share Spending,” 25 Systems With Largest Fair Share Deficits, April 2022, https://lownhospitalsindex.org/2022-fair-share-spending/

3 National Public Radio, “Investigation: Many U.S. hospitals sue patients for debts or threaten their credit,” December 2022, https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2022/12/21/1144491711/investigation-many-u-s-hospitals-sue-patients-for-debts-or-threaten-their-credit

4 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” October 2021, https://www.medicaldebtpolicyscorecard.org/state/CA

5 PatientRightsAdvocate.org, “Fourth Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” July 2023, https://www.patientrightsadvocate.org/july-semi-annual-compliance-report-2023, p. 26

6 Rand Corporation, “Nationwide Evaluation of Health Care Prices Paid by Private Health Plan: Findings from three Round 3 of an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative,” October 2021, https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR4394.html

7 Axios, “How America’s Top Hospitals Send Patient Costs Soaring,” June 2021,  https://www.axios.com/hospital-billing

8 Los Angeles Times, “Hospitals had to put charity care rules on their websites months ago. Some didn’t do it,” November 29, 2022, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2022-11-29/charity-care-posting-requirement-california-hospitals

All data as of February 2024.