1 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2023 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2023,

2 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” May 2022,

3 National Public Radio, “Investigation: Many U.S. hospitals sue patients for debts or threaten their credit,” December 2022,

4 Colorado Sun, “UCHealth sues thousands of patients every year. But you won’t find its name on lawsuits,” February 19, 2024,

5, “Sixth Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” February 2024, p. 24,

6 Peterson-KFF Health System Tracker, “Access & Affordability: The burden of medical debt in the United States,” February 2024,

7 Rand Corporation, “Prices Paid to Hospitals by Private Health Plans: Findings from Round 4 of an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative,” May 2022,

8 Leapfrog Hospital Safety Grade, State Rankings, November, 2022,

9 Axios, “How America’s Top Hospitals Send Patient Costs Soaring,” June 2021,

10 Center for Economic and Policy Research, “The Effects of Hospital Consolidation in Colorado,” March 5, 2020, pp. 6-7, p. 3,

All data as of March 2024.