1, “Third Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” August 2022,, p.19. 

2 Axios, “How America’s Top Hospitals Send Patient Costs Soaring,” June 2021,

3 Leapfrog Hospital Safety Grade, State Rankings, November 2022,

4 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” May 2022,

5 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2022 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2022,

All data as of January 2023.