1 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2024 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2024, https://lownhospitalsindex.org/hospital-fair-share-spending-2024/

2 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2024 Results Fair Share Spending,” Hospitals With Largest Fair Share Deficits, April 2024, https://lownhospitalsindex.org/hospital-fair-share-spending-2024/

3 The Rochester Post Bulletin, “They could have qualified for charity care. But Mayo Clinic sued them,” November 2022, https://www.postbulletin.com/newsmd/they-could-have-qualified-for-charity-care-but-mayo-clinic-sued-them

4 National Public Radio, “Investigation: Many U.S. hospitals sue patients for debts or threaten their credit,” December 2022, https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2022/12/21/1144491711/investigation-many-u-s-hospitals-sue-patients-for-debts-or-threaten-their-credit

5 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” October 2021, https://www.medicaldebtpolicyscorecard.org/state/MN

6 PatientRightsAdvocate.org, “Sixth Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” February 2024, https://www.patientrightsadvocate.org/semi-annual-report-feb2024, pg. 24

7 Peterson-KFF Health System Tracker, “Access & Affordability: The Burden of Medical Debt in the United States,” February 2024, https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/brief/the-burden-of-medical-debt-in-the-united-states/

8 Rand Corporation, “Prices Paid to Hospitals by Private Health Plans: Findings from Round 5 of an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative,” May 2024, https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA1144-2.html

9 Axios, “How America’s Top Hospitals Send Patient Costs Soaring,” June 2021, https://www.axios.com/hospital-billing

10 Leapfrog Hospital Safety Grade, “State Rankings,” November 2023, https://www.hospitalsafetygrade.org/your-hospitals-safety-grade/state-rankings

All data as of May 2024.