New York

1 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2023 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2022,

2, “Fifth Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” July 2023,, pg. 26. 

3 Rand Corporation, “Prices Paid to Hospitals by Private Health Plans: Findings from Round 4 of an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative,” July 2022,

4 Axios, “How America’s Top Hospitals Send Patient Costs Soaring,” June 2021,

5 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” May 2022,

6 Community Service Society, “Discharged Into Debt: New York’s Nonprofit Hospitals are Suing Patients,” March 2020,  

7 The New York Times, “One Hospital System Sued 2,500 Patients After Pandemic Hit,” October 2021,

8 National Public Radio, “Investigation: Many U.S. hospitals sue patients for debts or threaten their credit,” December 2022,

9 Leapfrog Hospital Safety Grade, State Rankings, May 2023,