North Dakota

1, “Fifth Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” July 2023,, pg. 26. 

2 Rand Corporation, “Nationwide Evaluation of Health Care Prices Paid by Private Health Plan: Findings from three Round 4 of an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative,” Supplemental Material, Table 7.28 North Dakota, July 2022,

3 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” May 2022,

4 National Public Radio, “Investigation: Many U.S. hospitals sue patients for debts or threaten their credit,” December 2022,

5 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2022 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2023,

6 Leapfrog Hospital Safety Grade, State Rankings, November 2023,

All data as of December 2023.