1 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2023 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2023

2 National Public Radio, “Investigation: Many U.S. hospitals sue patients for debts or threaten their credit,” December 2022

3 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” October 2021

4 Peterson-KFF Health System Tracker, “Access & Affordability: The burden of medical debt in the United States,” February 2024

5 PatientRightsAdvocate.org, “Sixth Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” February 2024, p. 24

6 Rand Corporation, Prices Paid by Private Health Plans: Findings from Round 4 of an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative, May 2022

7 Axios, “How America’s Top Hospitals Send Patient Costs Soaring, June 2021

8 Leapfrog Hospital Safety Grade, State Rankings, November 2023

All data as of March 2024.