South Dakota

1, “Fifth Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” July 2023, Appendix D, Page 26,

2 Rand Corporation, “Nationwide Evaluation of Health Care Prices Paid by Private Health Plan: Findings from three Round 4 of an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative,” July 2022,

3 The Leapfrog Group, “Fall 2023 Leapfrog Hospital Safey Grade,” November 2023,

4 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2023 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2023,

5 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” October 2021,

6 National Public Radio, “Investigation: Many U.S. hospitals sue patients for debts or threaten their credit,” December 2022,

All data as of January 2024.