1 Lown Institute, “Lown Institute Hospitals Index: 2023 Results Fair Share Spending,” April 2023

2 Innovation for Justice, University of Arizona and the University of Utah, “Medical Debt Policy Scorecard,” October 2021

3 Peterson-KFF Health System Tracker, “Access & Affordability: The burden of medical debt in the United States,” February 2024

4 PatientRightsAdvocate.org, “Sixth Semi-Annual Hospital Price Transparency Compliance Report,” February 2024, p. 24

5 Rand Corporation, Prices Paid by Private Health Plans: Findings from Round 4 of an Employer-Led Transparency Initiative, May 2022

6 Axios, “How America’s Top Hospitals Send Patient Costs Soaring, June 2021

All data as of March 2024.